Volume 1 Issue 4
1. Evaluation of rehabilitation services provided to drug addicts in district Peshawar
Author's Name: Ramsha Hamid, Naveeda Sarwar, Adnan sarwar, Saira Gul, Saman Hussain, Hassnain Masood

Abstract—Rehabilitation is an integrated program of interventions that empower individuals with disabilities and chronic health conditions to achieve “personally fulfilling, socially meaningful, and functionally effective interaction” in their daily contexts. To assessing the rehabilitation services provided to the drug addicts in Peshawar. To assess the role of government sector rehabilitation centers and the private sector rehabilitation centers in reducing the sufferings of the drug addicts.Methodology is a cross sectional analytical study was conducted in 4 rehabilitation centers of Peshawar city i.e. KTH, LRH, DWF Hayatabad and DWF Shahibala, selected by convenient sampling technique. A closed ended questionnaire was planned with a checklist of services provided in the drug rehabilitation centers. This was filled by the staff members of the rehabilitation centers. Also 131 drug addicts who were present in rehabilitation centers on the day of interview and were willing to participate in the study were included in the study population. Data was analyzed through Spss v.22 and different statistical test were applied. The resaerch is obtained the Results by Drug addiction was found to be 54% among the younger age group of 21-30 years. A significant (p=0.029) association was found between marital status and relapse of drug addiction. History of imprisonment had a significant relationship (p=0.003) with relapse. Another significant association (p=0.01) was found to exist between peer pressure and relapse. The results of the study explain that the services available for rehabilitation of drug addicts are not sufficient and the relapse rate more in public sector rehabilitation centers and the possible risk factors for relapse are peer influence, marital status and a history of imprisonment.Conclusionof this resarch is on the basis of the results and statistical analysis of our research study it can be concluded that the services available for the rehabilitation of drug addicts in Peshawar are not sufficient. The number of drug rehabilitation centers and the treatment slots available in those centers are few in number. Also most of the drug rehabilitation centers are providing the inpatient type of treatment setting which makes it impossible for a large number of drug addicts to get the benefits of rehabilitation programs. The rehabilitation services are not free of cost and a large number of drug addicts cannot afford the service charges as disallowance mechanism is not effective in the centers.

2. Impacts COVID-19 pandemic Diseases on Ethiopian Agriculture, Food Systems, Industries, and Mitigation and Adaptation Strategy
Author's Name: Suleyman Abdureman Omer, Nuradin Abdi Hassen

Abstract—The COVID-19 pandemic is a recent outbreak in almost all parts of the world including Ethiopia influencing the socio-economy of people and mainly threatening the agriculture and food security of the least developed countries. The current desk review and opinion synthesis by a multi-disciplinary team of experts from Haramaya University aimed at assessing the probable impact of the virus on the Ethiopian agriculture and food security and suggesting the possible mitigation and adaptation strategies to all responsible. Experts’ opinion and desk review of existing information were employed for the analysis and conclusions drawn, due to the difficulty of data generation at this time of movement restriction and poor database availability on websites of relevant institutions. Accordingly, the information gathered were synthesised and described following the major stages of food supply chains as production, handling and storage, processing and packaging, distribution and marketing, and consumption are key messages drawn from the overall assessment.

3. Synthesis of NiO/ZnO Nanoparticles: Application for Photodegradation of Methylene Blue
Author's Name: Bakhtawar Sajjad, Shaista Ali, Muhammad Akhyar Farrukh

Abstract—NiO/ZnO nanocomposites synthesized by sol-gel method with zinc chloride and nickel nitrate hexahydrate in ethanol used as solvent. Material was characterized by Particle size analyzer, UV-Vis, FTIR, TGA and DSC. NiO/ZnO nanoparticles investigated as a suitable photocatalytic material for the methylene blue degradation i.e. an organic dye under visible light irradiation. The UV–vis absorption spectra of the NiO/ZnO nanoparticles shown peaks in the UV region, corresponding to the band gap of the NiO/ZnO nanoparticles. The band gap of NiO/ZnO nanoparticles is calculated 3.55 eV by Tauc’s plot method. Then UV visible data showed the methylene blue degradation with NiO/ZnO nanoparticles, behaving as active catalyst.

4. Effect of dietary supplementation of neem oil (Azadirachtaindica) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned rabbits
Author's Name: Oluwafemi R. A, Oluwayinka E. O and Alagbe J. O.

Abstract—The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of neem oil (Azadirachtaindica) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of weaned rabbits. A total of 50 weaned male cross bred rabbits between 5-6 weeks with an average weight of 565.4g-566.8gwere divided into five dietary groups of ten (10) weaned rabbits each in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments include a control, T1 (basal) diet with no neem oil (NOL), T2, T3, T4 and T5 were fed basal diet supplemented with NOL at 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4% respectively. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the experiment which lasted for 12 weeks. The data obtained was used to evaluate the growth performance: weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality and nutrient digestibility (dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and ether extract). WG, ADFI, TFI were significantly (P˂0.05) different among the treatments. T5 had the highest weight gain (755.90 g) followed by T4(734.0g), T3(705.90g), T2(705.0g) and T1(621.80g) respectively. Highest mortality was recorded in T1 (2%) followed by T2 (1%), none was recorded in T3, T4 and T5. Neem oil significantly influenced (P˂0.05) all the parameters measured. It could be concluded thatneem oil contains some essential nutrients and bioactive chemicals and could be supplemented in the diet of rabbit at 0.4 % without any deleterious effect on the general performance of the animal.

5. Gut Histomorphometric and Blood Profile of Broiler Chicks Fed Varied Levels Of Protein
Author's Name: Shittu, M. D, Adejumo, D. O, Ademola, S. G, Alagbe, J.O

Abstract—Gut plays active role in screening what goes into the blood stream and blood is very important parameter to access for us to establish the health status of animal to any dietary variation, this will help the producer ability to guaranty the consumers’ health. Therefore this research was designed to determine gut histomorphometry and blood profile of broiler starter fed varied levels of protein. Material and method is A total of 144 days-old-broiler chicks were used for the study. Broiler standard starter mash with varied protein percentages of 20, 23, and 26%, respectively for treatments 1, 2 and 3 were used. Data were analysed using ANOVA at α0.05. Results is Except crude protein and ash contents, others nutrient digestibilities were not affected by the dietary treatments. Birds fed lower crude protein had the lowest crude protein digestibility while birds fed standard diet (23% CP) had the best and highest crude protein digestibility. White blood cell decrease with decrease dietary protein, this might have serious effect on the immunity level of the broilers.Also globulin increases while albumin decreases with increase in dietary protein levels. Serum total protein increases with increase in the dietary protein levels and diet with26% CP recorded the highest value (5.82g/dL). Serum cholesterol values were significantly higher at lower protein level unlike serum protein whiledifferent gut parts response significantly different to dietary treatments. Conclusion At early stage broiler growth, diet need to have higher CP to improve the immunity and health growth of gut.