Volume 1 Issue 5
1.Impacts of Climate Variability and Climate Change and Adaptation Strategy among Small Scale Farmers of Kurfa Chele District, East Hararghe Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia
Author's Name: Suleyman Abdureman Omer, Nuradin Abdi Hassen

Abstract—Climate variability and change has caused instability in production and decline in productivity exacerbating food insecurity particularly in Latin America, Africa including Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. The magnitude and frequency of extreme climatic events is projected to increase. The effects of these climatic changes will become even more pronounced among small scale farmers whose farming activities are weather dependent and vulnerable to climate change, and already affected by environmental degradation and socio-economic risks. Effective adaptation to climate change among small scale farmers is therefore of critical importance, and is dependent on adoption of climate smart practices. However, studies have shown low adoption of climate smart farming practices among small scale farmers world over, in East Hararghe Zone and Kurfa Chele District. This study therefore examined factors influencing adoption of climate smart practices among farmers Kurfa Chele District, East Hararghe Zone, evaluated their existing knowledge, attitude and practice of these practices, assessed their perception of climate change, examined the extent of climate information dissemination, and the resultant impact on uptake of these practices. The research adopted a survey research design, where both quantitative and qualitative research strategies were used. Data was gathered through Focus Group Discussions, questionnaires, key informant interviews, observations and desk review. Both simple random and purposive sampling was used to sample 420 small scale farmers and technical officers of the agriculture sector respectively. Data was analysed using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. To test the statistical significance of the findings and relationships between the variables, chi-square test was used.

2.The Effectiveness of Play Therapy in the Management of Aggression and Stubborn Behavior of Mild Intellectual Disable Child (A Case Study)
Author's Name: Muhammad Zakaria, Sabiha Dar, Ghinasha Chudary, Ejaz Hussain

Abstract—The Purpose of current article is to highlight the importance of play therapy in the management of aggression and stubborn behavior. The present study is based on a case of a boy who diagnosed with mild intellectual disability as well he had aggression and stubborn behavior. His undesirable behaviors were not decreased through prior treatment. The clinical psychologist at special education school were applied multiple psychological interventions of play therapy which included balloons of anger, bubble breaths relaxation exercise, the slow motion game and the mad game. Before the starting of therapy the aggression and stubborn behavior scales were filled by client’s mother. On the bases of psychological test and detailed history the client was diagnosed with mild intellectual disability according to the criteria of DSM-5. The play therapy techniques were learned by client to use at home by himself. After fifteen therapeutic sessions the measure tools of aggression & stubborn behaviors were again filled by client’s mother. Results displayed the extreme reduction in the level of aggression and stubborn behavior. Furthermore he also improves his social functioning as stated by client’s mother.

3.Some Operations Over Interval-Valued Fuzzy Matrices
Author's Name: I. Silambarasan

Abstract—The objective of this paper is to apply the concept of fuzzy matrices to interval-valued fuzzy matrices. In this paper, we introduce the Hamacher operations of interval-valued fuzzy matrices and prove some desirable properties of these operations, such as commutativity, idempotency and monotonicity. Further, we prove De Morgan's laws over complement for these operations . Then we constructe the scalar multiplication (n._h A) and exponentiation (A^(∧_h n)) operations of interval-valued fuzzy matrices and investigates the algebraic properties.

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